1994.12.01加拿大移民與難民委員會(Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada)針對圖博IC的檢討 ■雲程譯 st1\:*{}table.MsoNormalTable {font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman";}【Comment】 流亡政府的護照,是個很有曲折的話題。 旅行文件=護照?進一步說,印度政府針對圖博人民發行的旅行文件=圖博護照? 這份資料公布於1994.12.01,至今有了改變嗎? 無論如何,流亡人民的境遇是相當悽慘的,流亡政府之上尚有接受國,流亡政府必須受其節制,忍受諸多不變,以換取流亡的安身。 而不知原來自己處於流亡管轄的,套句GGY的話,更是巴子大學的優等生。 【相關閱讀】 西藏之頁 圖博的屋脊 table.MsoNormalTable {font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman";} 加拿大移民與難民委員會(Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada)針對圖博IC的檢討 ■雲程譯 【標題】印度:針對印度政府是否核發「國外旅行文件」給在印度的圖博難民,以及若是如此,是何種文件形式的訊息;針對在印度以外之核發與更新程序,以及針對在印度的圖博難民有關教育、就業與出境後再入境的訊息。 【略述】:加拿大移民與難民局,對於「印度:針對印度政府是否核發國外旅行文件給在印度的圖博難民,以及若是如 酒店兼職此,是何種文件形式的訊息;針對在印度以外之核發與更新程序,以及針對在印度的圖博難民有關教育、就業與出境後再入境的訊息」1994年12月1日 根據在印度共和國駐渥太華大使館(the High Commission for the Republic of India in Ottawa)護照事務官員,印度政府從1992年即未曾在印度核發旅行文件給圖博難民(1994.12.09)。在1992年之前,圖博難民若要印度之外旅行,得取得有效期為一個月的「臨時護照」。印度政府不再提供印度圖博難民「旅行服務」。 官員聲明,目前為回返印度,印度外的圖博難民應自海外印度使館取得一份「緊急證明」(1994.12.09)。「緊急證明」並非旅行文件。其為應圖博難民居住地政府之要求而核發。為核發「緊急證明」,印度海外使館,應特別確認難民之「國籍」,從此難民居住國家之移民當局取得有關「圖博難民地位」之證明,從印度政府取得重返的入境許可,以及返回印度的確認機票。核發「緊急證明」需要三到六個月時間,一般有效期限為兩星期。 此官員聲明,圖博難民返回印度並不擁有工作、也無接受印度政府服務的權利(1994.12.09)。進一步的訊息,請洽「訊息回應部門」(IND11239 1992.07.20)。 小型辦公室 根據紐約的圖博代表處,以及華盛頓DC的「國際圖博促進組織」(the International Campaign for Tibet),印度政府並未在印度核發旅行文件給圖博難民。 「圖博代表處」(Representatives of the Office of Tibet)與「國際圖博促進組織」皆指出,取得「身份證明」(identity certificate, IC),即因文件的顏色而被稱為「黃皮書」(yellow book)(1994.12.09; 1994.12.12)。「國際圖博促進組織」強調,在印度只核發給圖博難民的是「身份證明」,可以作為旅行之用但並非護照。 「圖博代表處」與「國際圖博促進組織」代表表示,為取得「身份證明」,圖博難民想至印度以外旅行,應向在達蘭莎拉的圖博流亡政府申請,包括提出國外個人或組織之邀請函(1994.12.12; 1994.12.09)。「國際圖博促進組織」說,為取得「身份證明」,此人或組織必須提供銀行存款證明、財力資助證明(affidavit of support)、圖博流亡政府認證之「綠書」,以及父或母為圖博人之證明。 有關「綠書」,「國際圖博促進組織」表示,此為圖博流亡政府發給在印度的圖博難民,做為證明文件之用(1994.12.09)。 根據「圖博代表處」與「國際圖博促進組織」取得「身份證明」的手續曠日 信用貸款廢時,可達到4~6個月(1994.12.09)。檢附各證明文件的申請表,必須題交在達蘭莎拉的圖博流亡政府處理,然後再轉送給新德里依序轉給各主管當局核准。大多數「身份證明」的申請,會獲得印度當局的核准。 兩代表處指出,「身份證明」有效期限為兩年(1994.12.12; 1994.12.09)。「國際圖博促進組織」補充,從去年起,「身份卡」有效期限為六年(1994.12.09)。 兩代表處所提供「仍不清處圖博難民在外旅行中是否能更新其效期」的訊息。根據「國際圖博促進組織」過期文件的持有人必須就近於回來之前在印度使館更新。更新手續花費2~3個月。然而,「圖博代表處」指出在外旅行中圖博難民「身份證明」的更新手續,更複雜些(1994.12.12)。對此,核發給圖博難民的「身份證明」,只能在印度更新。雖然還無法進一步加以評論,但「圖博代表處」聲明,圖博難民旅行文件到期的案例,是很罕見的。 此回應是由DIRB。此回應並非意味決定性任何難民地位或庇護個案內容。 India: Information on whether the Indian government issues documents to Tibetan refugees in India to travel abroad and, if so, what type of documents; information on the issue and renewal procedures o 找房子utside India and on the rights of Tibetan refugees in India to education and employment and to re-entry after visiting abroad Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, India: Information on whether the Indian government issues documents to Tibetan refugees in India to travel abroad and, if so, what type of documents; information on the issue and renewal procedures outside India and on the rights of Tibetan refugees in India to education and employment and to re-entry after visiting abroad, 1 December 1994. IND19143.E. Online. UNHCR Refworld, available at: http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3ae6ad 0f 30.html [accessed 20 April 2009] According to a passport official at the High Commission for the Republic of India in Ottawa, the Indian government has not issued documents to Tibetan refugees in India for travel abroad since 1992 (9 Dec. 1994). Before 1992, Tibetan refugees who wished to travel outside India could obtain a temporary passport valid for one month (ibid.). The Indian government no longer offer 澎湖民宿s "travel services" to Tibetan refugees in India (ibid.). The official stated that currently, in order to return to India, a Tibetan refugee outside India must obtain an emergency certificate from a high commission of India abroad (9 Dec. 1994). Emergency certificates are not travel documents (ibid.). They are issued upon the request of the government where a Tibetan refugee is residing (ibid.). To issue an emergency certificate, the Indian high commission abroad must, among other things, ascertain the refugee's nationality, obtain a clearance regarding the Tibetan refugee's status from the immigration authorities of the country where the refugee resides, obtain a clearance from the Indian government to allow the refugee's entry into the country, and verify the confirmed airline ticket to India (ibid.). An emergency certificate requires three to six months to be issued and is usually valid for two weeks (ibid.). The same official indicated that Tibetan refugees returning to India do not have the right to work n 酒肉朋友or the right of access to government services in India (9 Dec. 1994). For further information on this subject, please refer to Response to Information Request IND11239 of 20 July 1992. According to representatives of the Office of Tibet in New York and of the International Campaign for Tibet in Washington , DC , however, the Indian government does issue documents to Tibetan refugees in India for travel abroad (12 Dec. 1994; 9 Dec. 1994). Representatives of the Office of Tibet and the International Campaign for Tibet both indicated that to travel outside India , Tibetan refugees in India must obtain an identity certificate, known also as the "yellow book" because of its colour (12 Dec. 1994; 9 Dec. 1994). The representative of the International Campaign for Tibet emphasized that the identity certificate is issued to Tibetan refugees in India solely for travel purposes but is not a passport (ibid.). The representatives of the Office of Tibet and the International Campaign for Tibet stated that to obtain the identity certificate, a Tibetan refug 有巢氏房屋ee wishing to travel abroad must submit to the office of the exiled Tibetan government in Dharamsala, among other documents, a letter of invitation from the individual or organization inviting him or her to travel abroad (12 Dec. 1994; 9 Dec. 1994). The representative of the International Campaign for Tibet added that a bank statement of this individual or organization, an affidavit of support from this individual or organization, the green book carrying a stamp of the exiled Tibetan government and documents stating that the applicant was born of a Tibetan mother or father are also required for obtaining an identity certificate (ibid.). Regarding the green book, the representative of the International Campaign for Tibet stated that this book is issued by the exiled Tibetan government to Tibetan refugees in India and is used as an identity document (9 Dec. 1994). According to the representatives of Office of Tibet and the International Campaign for Tibet, the procedure for obtaining the an identity certificate is lengthy given that processing a request can take four to si 永慶房屋x months (9 Dec. 1994). Application forms accompanied by the required documents must be submitted to the office of the exiled Tibetan government in Dharamsala to be processed, then sent to its office in New Delhi which in turn forwards them to the appropriate Indian authorities for approval (ibid.). Requests for the identity certificate are approved by the Indian authorities in most cases (ibid.). Both representatives indicated that an identity certificate is valid for two years (12 Dec. 1994; 9 Dec. 1994). The representative of the Office for Tibet added that since last year, identity cards can be issued for six years (12 Dec. 1994). Information provided by representatives of the two organizations on whether a Tibetan refugee travelling outside of India can renew his or her expired travel document is unclear. According to the representative for the International Campaign for Tibet , the holder of an expired document must renew it at the nearest high commission of India before returning to India (ibid.). Renewal procedures can take from two to three months (ibid.). The representative 關鍵字行銷 of the Office of Tibet indicated, however, that renewal procedures for identity certificates for Tibetan refugees travelling abroad are more complicated (12 Dec. 1994). To his knowledge, identity certificates issued to Tibetan refugees can only be renewed in India (ibid.). Although unable to comment further on this subject, the representative of the Office of Tibet stated that cases of expired travel documents held by Tibetan refugees are rare (ibid.). This response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the DIRB within time constraints. This response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim to refugee status or asylum. References High Commission for the Republic of India , Ottawa . 9 December 1994. Telephone interview with passport official. International Campaign for Tibet , Washington , DC . 9 December 1994. Telephone interview with a representative. Office of Tibet , New York . 12 December 1994. Telephone interview with a representative. http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/refworld/rwmain?docid=3ae6a 辦公室出租d0f30  .
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